the Trademark Resource for Start-Ups, Business Owners, Marketing Professionals, In-House Counsel, and Attorneys

Likelihood of Confusion

This image consists of a figurine of a man reading a paper standing on fine print (like a disclaimer). The text on the image reads "Disclaimers - Do they prevent trademark confusion?" The image also contains the Trademark Well logo.

After a mini hiatus (due mainly to the INTA 2017 Annual Meeting madness in Barcelona), the Trademark Well blog posts are back on track. But that doesn't mean the impact of Barcelona isn't still being felt. Like in this post's featured image, for example. It's a tip of the cap to all those strange figurines that I saw in souvenir shops across Barcelona. In case you don't know, I'm talking about the Caganer figurines.

Back to trademark law. Let's talk disclaimers. Do they prevent confusion? continue reading→

A man staring at a question mark and the words "Types of Confusion: confused about confusion?"

Trademark infringement requires a likelihood of confusion. But what kind of confusion is required? Turns out, confusion has come a long way since 1962.

In 1962, 15 U.S.C. § 1052 was amended to delete the word "purchasers" from the phrase "likely to cause confusion, or to cause mistake, or to deceive purchasers." In addition, 15 U.S.C. § 1114 was amended to delete the phrase "as to the source of origin." These changes broadened actionable confusion to the use of any trademarks that were likely to cause confusion, mistake, or deception of any kind, not just confusion of purchasers or confusion as to source of origin. Since then, federal courts have recognized various types of actionable confusion. continue reading→

Map of Federal Appellate Circuits

Each of the 13 federal courts of appeal have their own test for evaluating whether a likelihood of confusion exists between two trademarks. Although the tests are not identical, most of them are substantially similar and use many of the same factors. And the factors are non-exclusive.  For ease of reference, I decided to identify the test used within each Circuit and set forth the factors in one convenient location, namely, this post. continue reading→